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Unit 1 Ways of Learning
Teaching Aims: 1. Understanding the main idea (that it would be ideal if we can strike a balance between the
Chinese and western learning styles) and structure of the text(introduction of the topic by an anecdote-elaboration by comparison and contrast-conclusion by a suggestion) 2. Appreciate the difference between comparison and contrast, as well as different ways to compare and contrast (point-to-point method or one-side-at-time method) 3. Grasp the key language points in Texts A and grammatical structures in the text 4. Understand the cultural background related to the content 5. Conducting a series of theme-related reading, listening, speaking, and writing activities 6. Learn to write notices, etc. Teaching Keypoints: 1. Grasp the main idea of Text A and language points in Text A 2. Cultural background about Chinese and western ways of learning 3. Analysis of the difficult sentences in Text A Teaching Difficulties: 1. Writing strategy and style demonstrated in Text A 2. Learn how to understand the structure of difficult and long sentences Teaching Aids: Teacher-guided, discussion, exercises, group-activities, student-centred Teaching period: 12 classes

Teaching Procedure:

Step 1Warming up 1. Have students read the overview of page 2, students will understand the main topic of unit
(ways of learning in Chinese and western countries) 2. Have students listen to the script of listening part, explain some difficult sentences and
phrases, lead them to finish the exercises on page3, check the answer 3. How to understand the following sentences:
Standing on the shoulders of giants 4. Explain the cultural notes of education in the west 5. In class, students form two camps to debate the following issue: If you have a baby , which
way would you prefer to use , to pay more attention to develop more skills or to creativity?

Step 2 Global analysis of Text A Ⅰ. Scanning

Scan Text A and decide whether the following statements are true or false.

1 Benjamin was worried that he couldn

’ t put the key into the box. (F)

(=Benjamin was not bothered at all.)

2. In the Chinese staff

’ s opinion, the parents should ngjuaimdeinBteo insert the key. (T)

3. The author and his wife didn

’ t care whether Benjamin succeeded in inserting the key into the

slot. (T)

4. For the Westerners, learning should take place by continual careful shaping and molding. (F) (= The Chinese think that learning should take place by continual careful shaping and molding.) 6. Chinese teachers hold the opinion that skills should be acquired as early as possible, while
American educators think that creativity should be acquired early. (T) 7. Add more questions about the text:
Where and when did the incident take place? Who are the main characters in this incicent? What is Howard Gardner? Why do the couple come to China? How old is the son of the author ? Through what does the baby get pleasure in the incident? What is the attitude of his parents ? What is the attitude of the hotel staff towards Benjamin effort? 8. Answer the questions of on page 10-11

ⅱUnderstanding the main idea of the text Division of the Text A

Parts Para(s).

Main Ideas



The text begins with an anecdote.


6~13 The author ’ s thoughts are mainly about different approaches to learning

in China and the West.



The author winds up the text with a suggestion in the form of a question.

Step 3 Detailed Reading of Text A Ⅰ. Difficult Sentences

1. (LL. 13~15) Because of his tender age and incomplete understanding of the need to position the

key just so, he would usually fail.

Paraphrase the sentence. (= Because he was so young and didn ’qtuite know that he should

position the key carefully to fit into the narrow key slot, he would usually fail.)

2. (L. 15) Benjamin was not bothered in the least.(= Benjamin was not bothered at all.)

3. (L. 30)

… and to throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity.

And to help explain Chinese attitudes toward creativity.

4. (LL. 37~39)

… since the child is neither old enough nor clever enough to realize the desired

action on his own, what possible gain is achieved by having him struggle?

What does the desired action refer to? (= Positioning the key carefully to fit into the slot.)

5. (L. 39) He may well get frustrated and angry. (= He is likely to get frustrated and angry.)

Eg . You use “ may well ” when you are saying what you think is likely to happen.

6. (L. 47~48) He was having a good time and was exploring, two activities that did matter to us.

What do the two activities refer to?(= Having a good time and exploring.)

“ activities that did matter to us

” .(= activities that were important to us.)

7. (L. 52) … whether it be placing a key in a key slot, drawing a hen or making up for a misdeed … = No matter whether it is placing a key in a key slot, drawing a hen or making up for

some mistakes.) the subjunctive mood

eg. Whether he be present or absent, we shall have to do our part.)

8. (LL. 80~81) … young Westerners making their boldest departures first and then gradually

mastering the tradition (西方的…年轻人先是大胆创新,然后逐渐深谙传统。


What does making their boldest departures mean?(=Doing sth. different from an established rule

or tradition.)

9. (LL. 98~99) But assuming that the contrast I have developed is valid, and that the fostering of

skills and creativity a re both worthwhile goals

assuming + that-clause: 假定… You use assuming that when you are considering a possible situation or event, so that you can think about the consequences.

Eg. Assuming that we all work at the same rate, we should be finished by January.)

10. (LL. 100~102) Can we gather, from the Chinese and American extremes, a superior way to

approach education, perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of creativity and basic

skills? 我们能否从中美两个极端中寻求一种更好的教育方式,它或许能在创造力与基本技 能这两极之间获得某种较好的*衡 ?)

Step 4 Words and Expressions of Text A

1.(L. 7) attach: vt. fasten or join (one thing to another)

* She attached an antenna to the radio.

(=A tag was attached to each article.)

Pattern: attach sth. to sth.

be attached to sth.

2. (L. 21) initial: adj. of or at the beginning; first 最初的会谈是后来达成协议的基础。 (=The initial talks were the base of the later agreement.)

* the initial lette r of a word


3. (L. 25) await: vt. wait for He was anxiously awaiting her reply.

他早就期待着这个时刻了。 (=He has long awaited this moment.)

4. (L. 25) on occasion: now and then

It has, on occasion, created trouble for the bank.

你有时使人们感到诧异。 (=You have on occasion surprised people.) CF: on occasion & on the occasion of

on occasion有时,间或。

on the occasion of在… 之际。

on the occasion of sb.'s wedding

5. (L. 26) neglect: vt. give too little attention or care to

* neglect one's meals and sleep 离开时别忘了锁门。

(=Don't neglect to lock the door when you leave.)

CF: neglect, ignore & omit 这几个词都有忽略、遗漏之意。

neglect 指对职责、义务或应做的事没有给予足够的注意。这种忘记可能是有意的,也可能 是无意的。例如: Those who neglect their duties should be punished. 玩忽职守者应受惩罚。

Why do they always neglect the traffic regulation. 他们为什老是不注意遵守交通规则呢?

ignore 指疏忽、不顾,强调对某人或某物故意不理会,有时还带有固执地拒绝的意味。例 如: When I saw Tom, I stopped to greet him, but he ignored me and walked on. 当我看到汤姆时,我停下来和他打招呼,但他没有理我继续往前走。

The teacher ignored my difficult questions. 老师对我的难题置之不理。

omit 指因专注或疏忽而忘记某事,这种失误可能是有意或无意的。该词还可指删除不利或

不必要的东西。例如: She should not omit to visit the museum. 她不应忘了去参观博物馆。

The third part of the book may be omitted. 该书的第三部分可以删掉。 6. (L. 28) relevant: adj. directly connected with the subject

(=His color is not relevant to whether he's a good lawyer.)

(=The evidence is relevant to the case.) 该证据与此案有关。 Pattern: be relevant to

7. (L. 29 ) investigate:

vt. try to find out information about * Scientists are investigating how the plane crash occurred.

* If you hear such a rumor, investigate it thoroughly.

vi. make a detailed inquiry *investigate into an affair *investigate into a rumor

CF: investigate, examine & inspect


investigate 较正式,指有条不紊地进行调查研究以发现事实真相,更常用以说明调查案件、 情况、背景来历等。例如:

*They investigated the cause of the accident. 他们调查了事故的原因。

*The police are investigating the murder. 警方正在调查这件谋杀案。 examine 是普通用语, 指仔细地检查某人或物。 该词还指官方主持的检查或医生进行的诊察, 也表示对某种观点的讨论研究,更指考试。例如:

*They examined our passports very carefully. 他们仔细检查了我们的护照。 *An optician is qualified to examine your eyes and prescribe glasses. 眼科医生有资格来检查你 的眼睛并给你配眼镜。

inspect 较正式,用得不如 examine 广泛,指对某人或某物进行检查、查问,带有揭示其差 异或缺陷的意思。更常指官员们的视察以发现下属单位的缺点等,还指检阅军队。例如:

*The firemen were inspecting the warehouse for potential fire hazards. 以防火灾。


*Every length of cloth is inspected before it leaves the factory. 出厂之前每寸布匹都检查过。

8. (L. 30) throw light on: help understanding * These facts throw new light on the matter. 这些事实使人进一步了解此事。

9. (L. 34) exception: n. sb./sth. that a comment or statement does not apply to

(=There is an exception to this grammatical rule.)

(= This is an apparent exception to the rule.) 这是那项规定的一个明显的例外。

Pattern: an exception to


with many/few exceptions 有很多 /很少例外 without exception 毫无例外,一律 with the exception of 除…之外 make an exception of 把 ...作为例外 make no exceptions 不容许有例外;一视同仁

10. (L. 39) desirable: adj. worth having as by being useful, advantageous, or pleasing; worth


* Main Street is a very desirable location for a large department store.

* It is most desirable that he should attend the conference.

NB: antonym: undesirable

11. (L. 41) accomplish: vt. manage to do (sth.)

* She's accomplished a great deal in the last few weeks. 这项任务不是在一代人的时间里所能完成的。

(= The task will not be accomplished in one generation.)

accomplish one's object/goal 达到目的

accomplish one's mission 完成使命

CF: accomplish, complete & finish 这三个词都含“完成”的意思。

accomplish 通常接 task, aim, journey, voyage 等名词,有时兼有取得效果之意。例如:

*I don't feel our visit really accomplished anything. 我不认为我们的访问真正取了什么结果。

complete 比 accomplish 具体,可接建筑、工程、书籍等名词,指按预期目的把未完成的工 作经过进一步的努力使之完成,主要涵义是补足缺少的部分。例如:

*The building will be completed by the end of this month. 这座楼于本月底建成。

finish 在许多情况下可与 complete 换用 , 但不及 complete 正式,常含有认真仔细地完成工作 的最后阶段的精工修饰,使之完美的意思。例如:

*Finish the work off before you leave for your holiday. 你去度假前应先把工作做完。

12. (L. 43) in due course: at the proper time; eventually

* Be patient. You'll get your promotion in due course.

13. (L. 48) critical: adj.

1) very important A second income is critical to the family's well-being.


(The next two weeks will be critical for the


Collocation : a critical decision 重大的决定 critical moment 紧要关头,关键时刻

2) very serious or dangerous 严重短缺食物 (=a critical shortage of food)

Collocation: critical condition 危险状态 a critical illness 重病

14. (L. 50) principal adj. main; chief

* the principal food of the people of India

the principal rivers of Europe

CF: principal & principle

principal 和 principle 的意思完全不同,但常常被混淆。

principle 仅作名词用,其主要意义指基本的东西或规则和标准。

principal 既是名词又是形容词。作为名词,它一般指居于高位或担任重要角色的人。例如:

a meeting among all the principals in the transaction 。作为形容词, 它有主要的或首要的的意思。

15. (L. 50) rear: 1. vt. Bring up and educate; look after (animals)

2. n. back part 后部;背面 * The kitchen is in the rear of the house. 停车场在这建筑物的后边。 (= The parking lot is at the rear of the building.)

16. (L. 52) make up for: repay with sth. good; compensate for

* I didn't travel much when I was younger, but I'm certainly making up for lost time now. 他们加速进行以补回失去的时间。 (=They hurried on to make up for lost time.)

17. (L.59) in retrospect: on evaluating the past; upon reflection

* There are some things that you only become totally conscious of in retrospect.

(=In retrospect, what I have done is clearly absurd.)

18. (L.64) facility: n.

1) ability to do sth. easily and well

* play the piano with facility 有学*语言的天才 (= have great facility in learning languages)

2) (pl.) equipment, aids, etc. which make it easy to do things

*sports facilities*There are facilities for cooking in the kitchen.

娱乐设施 (= entertainment facilities)

19. (L. 71) apply: vi. 1) be relevant; have an effect

Pattern: apply to sb./sth. *What I have said does not apply to you. 教授的这条建议只适用于一些大学生。 (=The advice given by the professor only applies to some

of the college students.)

2) write a letter or fill in a form in order to ask formally for sth.

Pattern: apply (to sb.) for sth.

apply to do sth.

*We applied to the authorities for assistance. 他决定申请参加学生会。 (=He decided to apply to join the Student Union.)

20. (L. 79) priority: n. sth. that one must do before anything else

* Study is not on his list of priorities. 道路建设应是予以优先考虑的事。 (=Road building is a first priority.)

21. (L. 82) evolve: vi. develop gradually

Pattern: evolve into 进化成,发展成,逐步形成

evolve from/out of 由…演化而成;从…发展而来

*The early fish have evolved into some 30,000 different species.


(= The simple plan evolved into a complicated


*Some people believe that we evolved from the apes.


(= The whole idea evolved from a casual


22. (L. 85) contrast:

1). v. compare (two people or things) so that differences are made clear

Pattern: contrast A with/and B

* In her speech she contrasted the government 我忍不住把她的态度和她朋友的态度作了对比。

’ s optimistic promises with its dismal achievements.

(= I cannot help contrasting her attitude with that of her friends.)

Collocation: contrast sharply/strikingly 形成鲜明的对比 contrast startlingly/strongly 形成惊人的 /强烈的对比
2). n. difference between things compared

*The atmosphere of the Second World War in London was a complete contrast to that of the First.

*There is a marked contrast between the group

’ s actions and its principles.

Collocation: constitute/form a sharp contrast to 与…形成鲜明的对照

intensify/sharpen the contrast 加强对比 reveal/show a contrast 显示出差别 23(L. 87) harbor:

1). vt. keep (sth.) secretly in one * He might be harboring a death wish.

’ s mind

* harbor thoughts of revenge

2). n. place of shelter for ships

*The navy has constructed an artificial harbor.

*All the ships stayed in the harbor during the storm.

24. (L. 89) promote: vt. help to grow or develop

* new efforts to promote the world peace

促进经济发展 (= promote economic growth ) 牛奶增进健康。 (= Milk promotes health.) CF: promote & further 这两个词都可指促使某事物朝着预期的目标发展。 promote 用于事物发展的各个阶段,包括起始阶段。例如: *promote the understanding between the two countries 促进两国之间的相互了解 *The audiolingual method should be promoted. 应当推广听说法。
further 则用于除了起始阶段以外的各个发展阶段。例如: *Getting a scholarship will further her education. 获得奖学金可以使她继续深造。 25. (L. 90) emerge: vi. come out (声音文件 emerge) (=Eventually the truth of the matter emerged.) * Large scale industry emerged gradually as technology evolved. Pattern: emerge from/out of 太阳从云层背后出现。 (=The sun emerges from behind the clouds.) *New evidence emerged from the investigation. It emerges that … *It later emerged that the driver of the car had been drunk. 26. (L. 98) valid: adj. based on truth or sound reasoning *This is a valid argument against economic growth. (=They have valid reasons for refusing to do it.) 27. (L. 99) worthwhile: adj. worth doing; worth the trouble taken * Here is some worthwhile advice to any young businessman. 这本书值得一读。 (= It ’s a worthwhile book.) 28. (L. 101) superior: better than average or than others of the same type Pattern: be superior to be superior in 敌军在数量上占优势。 (= The enemies were superior in numbers.) 这条地毯在质量上远远比那条好。 (= This carpet is far superior to that one in quality.)

Step 5 Useful Expressions 1. 被系在…上 2. 探索行为 3. 偶尔 4. 父母的责任 5. 揭示,阐明 6. 最终目的 7. 要做的动作 8. 所希望的结果 9. 关键 10. 育儿观 11. 弥补某种错误行为 12. 回想起来 13. 善意的 14. 前来帮助某人 15. 极其熟练、温和地 16. 适用于 17. 发展到

be attached to… exploratory behavior on occasion parental duties throw light on an ultimate purpose desired action desirable outcome critical point value of child rearing making up for a misdeed in retrospect well-intentioned come to sb.’ s rescue with extreme facility and gentleness apply to evolve to

18. 发展创造力 19. 值得追求的目标

promote creativity worthwhile goals

Step 6 Post-reading tasks 1 Debate: Should we develop children ’s creativity first or train them in basic skills first? 2 Teacher checks on students’home reading (Text-B) 3 Practical writing about writing notices

Step 7 Homework Finish the exercises of Page 10-20 about Text A Teacher asks students to prepare the next unit