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HOW TO IMPROVE THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ INTEREST IN READING

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题目

如何提高中学生对英语阅读的兴趣

项目设计者: 刘芸

甘肃广播电视大学定西分校

提交时间: 2014 年 11 月 10 日 课程名称: 论文项目设计



Project Title

HOW TO IMPROVE THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ INTEREST IN READING

Investigator: Liu Yun

Dingxi Branch of Gansu Radio & TV University

Submitted on Nobember 10,2014 In fulfillment of the course Practical Project Design



Acknowledgment I am mostly grateful to my supervisor Wang Yanhong, whose help and patience made this project get off the ground and come to a close smoothly. No amount of thanks will be adequate for my students without whose willing participation in the project implementation it would have remained in my mind. Last but not the least, thanks are given to my husband who have shared with me my worries, frustrations, and hopefully my ultimate happiness in eventually finishing this project.



摘要

此文从英语课程教学的角度出发, 研究了中学生阅读兴趣方面的问题。 与 同类研究相比,本文旨在突出探讨中学英语教学中阅读兴趣的重要性。我们的 主要研究目的包括如何有效提高中学生英语阅读兴趣, 本文共由四个部分组 成。我们首先简单介绍了阅读教学中的一般情况; 然后提出了兴趣爱好理论, 并用以验证英语阅读与兴趣爱好之间的关系;除此之外, 我们还研究了阅读理 解和速度与必要的背景知识和阅读技巧之间的关系;最后我们得出了利用必要 的背景知识和阅读技巧,提高学生阅读的兴趣结论,以此结束了全篇的讨论。 本项研究发现以上三个要素是影响中学生阅读兴趣的主要因素,本项研究希望 对初中英语教学中的听、说、读、写等项语言技能产生积极影响,并主要体现 在通过对上述三个因素的控制,进而设计一种整合型的教学方案,促进和发展 中学阅读教学,提高学生的阅读兴趣。

关键词: 英语阅读, 学*兴趣, 背景知识, 阅读技巧 语言教学



Abstract

As the researches further , students' interest of English learning is attracting more and more attention of all level of researches .I examine the reading issue from a language teaching perspective. Different from previous research, this paper wants to emphasize the importance of interest in the study of reading at a middle school. In what follows, I want to know how to enhance the interest of students in reading (reading skills, speed and result). There are four parts in this paper. I start with a brief introduction to reading, then we propose a motivational theory to testify the correlation between interest and reading. An additional discussion of necessary background knowledge, reading skill and speed in reading is also provided. We end the study with the conclusion that students? reading comprehension can be greatly enhanced by their motivation development, mastering of the necessary background knowledge and skills. I found in our research that there are three major factors influencing learners ? interest in reading. Based on these findings, it may be conduced that if we want to improve students? reading ability, we have to first deal with the issue of motivation development, necessary background knowledge and reading skills. Some useful implications obtained from this study include that due attention should be paid to the interplay of the above-mentioned three factors.


Key Words: language teaching; motivation; reading training; interest of reading; reading skills.



Contents

1. Problem

-------------------------------------------------1

2. Problem Analysis-----------------------------------------------1 3. Project Objective-----------------------------------------------2 4. Project Hypothesis---------------------------------------------2 5. Project rational-------------------------------------------------3 6. Project Design --------------------------------------------------4 7. Project implementation----------------------------------------5 8. Project Evaluation----------------------------------------------8 9. Conclusion -------------------------------------------------------8 10.Bibliography-------------------------------------------------------9 .Appendix A Questionnaire One for problem Analysis------10 Appendix B Worksheet-Note-----------------------------------11 Appendix C Worksheet-guessing the meaning-------------12 Appendix D Worksheet-Filling in the blanks---------------13 Appendix E Questionnaire Two-the post-trial questionnaire-----------------------------------------------------14 11.Appendix F Teaching Material--------------------------------15



1. Problem In learning a language, especially a foreign language, reading is a very important link. Though it is not very easy, we can get information from passages through reading. I have taught English in middle schools for two years. In final exams, the marks of reading are about one third of all the marks. But most of the students are very unconfident and afraid of reading. They are so nervous that they don?t want to read th e passages as soon as they see them. So they do worse and worse in reading. Some students can?t do reading tasks well because of their limited vocabulary, some because of the absence of necessary knowledge background; still many of them don?t have the inferring and judging ability according to the context while reading even though they know every word of the sentence. Let alone the real meaning according to the whole passage. Of course, others can?t understand because they don?t know the real meaning of a certain word in the sentence. That is to say, they haven?t mastered the word which may have more than one meaning. All these factors limit their ability to understand the text. So they feel dull to do reading tasks. They can?t intentionality read. How to enhance the reading ability through organizing reading class well is very important. How to enhance the effect of teaching, training the reading ability is an important question. Some scholars pay a lot of attention to the theory of reading. Much work has been done about these questions: what elements do reading


comprehension involve? What?s the relationship between the background knowledge and the language in reading, etc. 2. Problem analysis Before I begin to design my new teaching plan, I would like to find out the reason why some of my students feel that they aren?t interested in reading comprehension. I try to find the answers from three respects: the teacher, the students and the class size, and we should choose the right teaching materials, neither too difficult nor too easy for them. 2. 1. The teacher’s side I have taught English for three years. After reflecting on my teaching experience, I find most of my classes were taught by old-fashioned teaching methods by which I myself learned English. That is to say when I was a student, my teacher used these methods to teach me and now I use them to teach my students. In class, I spend much time in explaining the meaning of the sentences, new words and grammar points. When I listened to the recording of my lesson I found I did most of talking in class. I found I did not give much time to my students to practice what they learned and give them few opportunities to read. I did not realize the problem until I learned the course English Language Teaching Methodology. “Traditional methods of learning a foreign die hard. (Alexander.94) That is true. 2.2. The students’ side


From Questionnaire One (see appendix A), I know what the students think of the reading task. The following are the main reasons why they do not like reading the text. Some weak-learners lacked confidence. They think their English is poor and they do not quite understand some words and sentences in the text, even if they know the words. They lack logical, assuming and reasoning ability, so they can?t understand the txt exactly. Some students lack the necessary historical and geographical knowledge, even if they can read the passages, they can?t do the multiple correctly. Many students told me that when the content of the text was not familiar to them, they felt that they didn?t want to touch it. Some do not think it is necessary to read in class. They think they only learn the basic language knowledge, and they needn?t do more reading. A few students think reading in class is a waste of time. The teacher should tell them more important things about reading strategies in class. 2.3. The size of the class The class size of 41 students might have some negative effect. It is impossible to give every one the chance to tell the meaning of the passage. The few chances for students to read may be given to those who do not want to read while the other may never have the interest to practice reading, they may do irrelevant things in class while others are learning.
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All these reasons make the students unable to read on their own initiative, so the reading class hasn?t got any effectiveness. 3. Project objective Enhance the junior high school students? interest in reading by initiative reading. If they aren?t interested in it. They won?t calm down to read or do any reading comprehension exercises. 4. Project hypothesis If students aren?t interested in the reading text, how can they get the correct comprehension of it! So it is hypothesized that the students? reading ability is increased by interest in reading. 5. Project rational 5.1 Methods of Stimulating Interest There are so many unfavorable factors that influence the formation of interest of students, such as traditional teaching concepts and methods, and improper teaching materials. So, all of the aspects mentioned above should be taken into consideration to improving the interest in English reading. Another important thing is that teaching materials should be fit for students. When talking about the use of teaching materials, schools and teachers should choose the best ones that can keep pace with our time, consider the students' psychological features and students' requirements. Most of those materials should be full of novelty, close to the students'
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daily life and easy for students to read and understand. So teaching materials must be chosen according to the precondition of attracting students? interest. Of course, teaching methods should fit for most of students. In schools, some teachers pay little attention to developing the students' interest. It's natural that teaching methods are very important. The traditional teaching method cannot meet the students? needs and cannot give joy and pleasure to students. Improper methods may limit the students? space of thinking and imagination. So teachers should adopt diversified teaching methods to enliven the dull atmosphere, and achieve the good effect. Society is developing and teaching methods should be changed with it, too. The English teaching and learning has its special features, and teachers should make full use of the features to attract the students? attention and interest. On the other hand, students should also do more practice in cultivating interest, set clear goals and have good attitudes in the course of learning. And teachers should know that there are so many ways to arouse the students' interest in English learning. 5.2. Raising Students' Consciousness in English Learning Having a better idea of the learning aim can raise the students' consciousness in English learning. In this way, students can keep interest for a longer time, and raise their enthusiasm and activeness. If teachers cannot help students set up the correct learning aim, it is
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impossible to stimulate the students' interest successfully. In order to make students have the initiative, and consciousness in English learning, all the English teachers should do their best to raise the sense of responsibility in their teaching. 5. 3. Desire for Knowledge and Skills In English learning, teachers should make students filled with the desire to learn more knowledge and skills. At schools, it is important for students to get much knowledge, and at the same time, they can enjoy the happiness in the process of English learning. In order to make students show their desire for knowledge and skills, teachers must create a series of internal and external conditions to help students to get more knowledge and skills. The accumulation of the actual knowledge and skills in some subjects is based on the students? interest. Only on basis of the basic knowledge and skills they have learned, can students get new knowledge and skills, and they can also feel happy and successful as the time goes on. The students' active practice and the necessary basic knowledge and skills under the guidance and help of teachers, can further help and encourage students to arouse the interest in English learning. 5.4. New Teaching Methods In the whole process of English teaching and learning, teachers should use various and interesting materials and vivid teaching methods to attract students. New and good methods can usually spur students to
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study harder and get the best results. The change of teaching contents and methods can make students get more interest in English learning. So teachers use new materials and teaching methods to help students finish their tasks smoothly and improve the students' interest in English reading. 6. Project design Timetable of the project design Week Stage Preparation for 1 reading 1.To talk something about some famous men to stimulate the interests 45m Teaching object Time t

2.To

learn

some

background knowledge

Reading Stage 2 1 Skimming 2 Scanning 3 making notes

To catch the main ideas of a text 90m

through skimming, scanning and note making.
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Post---reading 3 test

To do some filling blanks exercise. 45m

Based on the rational, the passage How Carl Mari Studied in Senior English for China (SEFC) Book 1B was used as my language material. New tasks are to be designed and new teaching models are to be used with the aim of providing students with a chance to catch the main idea successfully. Since it is a large class, I must pay attention to the following factors. 1) Asking more students to say something about the famous men to arouse their interests. 2) Give some information about Karl Marx. 3) From some groups to discuss the questions. 4) Use various types of task and reading strategies to get efficient result. I will give the students some sayings of Marx?s and ask more them to arouse the students? will to read. I use some interestin g activities to stimulate the students? interest, providing them with a chance to use their imagination and creative ability I give more background information about the text to the students. In this stage, students are asked some questions to see how much information about the text they have known. Sometimes pictures or maps are shown for them to guess what will
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happen in the text or what the text that they are to learn is about. The students begin to read the text and come to the next page-reading. In this stage students are to read the text several times using different ways: skimming, scanning, and then closing reading, each time they will be given different questions, so that they can understand the text better while reading. Take the passage How Carl Marx Studied for example, the first two question are: what foreign languages did Carl Marx study? And what work did Marx do? Then the scanning questions were: In what country was Carl Marx born and what was his native language? Etc. Some other activities are used in the stage, such as guessing the meaning of new words and expressions in the text, making notes, listening to the tape of the text, some exercises on grammar points and so on. I choose a common class to have the experiment, They are about seventeen and in Grade One of Senior High School. They have mastered some basic knowledge of English, but for some reasons, some of them are not good at English and they aren?t interested in it, either. They especially have difficulty in reading. To enhance their interests and make them read initiatively. I design this reading class. I try to help the students to have a great improvement through my reading course. 7. Project implementation Project implementation isn?t so easy, so teachers must do a lot of preparations for pre-reading, while-reading and after-reading.
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Week 1 7.1Preparation for reading Before students begin a few text, I would like to talk something about some famous men to stimulate their interests. We are learning English, we often have a great deal of difficulty in learning foreign languages. Marx can grasp several foreign languages, do you know how Marx studied foreign languages? In this way I arouse the students? motivation to learn the text. In order to learn the text, the background knowledge is necessary, so I will spend a few minutes explaining it. Usually I ask them some questions or ask them to talk about the pictures on the book. When I taught the passage How Carl Marx studied, my question was “What do you know about Karl Marx?” I ask the students to tell me everything they knew about Karl Marx: his homeland, his native language, his books, his best friend, his grave and so on. Sometimes I ask them some questions to help them. By the end of this activity, I believe that the students get more information about Karl Marx. Week 2 7.2. Reading Stage Then we come to the reading stage. In this stage, I use diverse activities to ask the students to read the text. In this way, they will be familiar with the content of the text quickly and they will learn how to
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catch the main ideas of a text from general to specific. The activities include skimming, scanning and note making. Skimming Firstly, I give students two minutes to read the text and ask them to find the answer to the question. Usually the question is given right above the text in the book. Sometimes I add one or two questions which mean to help students find the main idea better. I give my students a tip and ask them to use it often. That is to read the first and last sentence of one paragraph to guess the answer they are looking for. When students find the answer, I always encourage them to put their hands and answer the question. I also encourage them to pick out the words they can not pronunciation well or anything they feel difficult to understand while reading. When students have different answers to the question, for example, what work did Marx do? I always give them some time to argue or discuss and ask them to give evidence to support their views. Scanning In this activity, I design some questions for septic information. Usually, I write these questions on the projector and ask the students to answer orally in pairs. Then I ask some students to give their answers in class. Making notes Firstly, I write the headings on the blackboard with yellow chalk. Take MORE INFORMATION ABOUT KARL MARX( SEFCBOOK 1B) for
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example, I write the following words on the blackboard: Name: Born: Studied at: Lived in: Moved to London in: Wrote(books): wrote 2 articles about: Studied(languages): political idea:

Then I tell the students to find the information from the text. Then I ask the students: “ Where and when was Marx born?” I collect the information from the students and write. “May 5, 1818, Germany” on the blackboard with white chalk. I draw the students? attention to the fact that we require notes, not sentences. Then I tell them to find all the information by themselves. While the students are doing this task. I go around in the classroom to see if they do the task according to what I have told and stop some of them from writing sentences. After that I ask them to check their notes in groups of four before collecting the notes from them. At the end of the activity I write the right information on the blackboard (see Appendix B). In order to deal with the words and language problems that the students mentioned, in the reading stage I also use some other activities to help them. Guessing meaning of the new words and phrases I select some new words and phrases that may affect my students? understanding of the text. I put them in the left column there are words and phrases that have the similar meaning that is familiar to the students.
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I write them in a haphazard order on parents ahead. Then ask the students to mach the words and phrases in the left column with those in the right. The students should do this task in pairs before I collect the answers in class (See Appendix C). The task is usually done after skimming. Phrase practice Firstly, I write the phrases on the blackboard or projector and I read a sentence using the phrase slowly and clearly. Secondly, I ask two or three students to repeat the sentence and ask another student to put the sentence in to Chinese. Thirdly, I say a second sentence with the same phrase and do the second step again. Then I give the students a Chinese sentence and ask them to put it into English. Finally, I ask the students to make a sentence by themselves using this phrase. Week 3 7.3.Post---reading test To test the students if they have grasped the text, I ask the students to do the filling blanks exercise. Fill in the blank of the short passage The short passage in fact usually is a summary of the text. For example, “ Karl Marx was born in ____. When he was young, he ____to leave his…” (See Appendix D) 7. 4.Data analysis: I use two questionnaires at different time in this project to see if my
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design can prove my hypotheses. Questionnaire 2 is designed partly based on Questionnaire 1 in the research so that comparisons can be made to see the improvement after the implementation. There are the same three questions used in two questionnaires to get the students? general opinion about reading. (See Appendix A and E) The questions deal with three aspects: degree of interest, help and difficulty in their reading work. The followings are the three questions: Question 1: Do you like the reading activity? Question 2: Does the reading activity give you much help in your English study? Question 3: Is it difficult for you to read a text? After comparing the results of the two questions, I find that there had been some improvement in different degrees after the implementation stage. The results of the two questionnaires are presented in Table 1. Table: Comparison of the results of three questions in questionnaires. Very------------------------------------------not at all

Degree Q2 Interest Help 5%

4 Q1 Q2 2%

3 Q1 Q2

2 Q1 Q2

1 Q1

38% 20%

45% 63% 12% 15% 12% 12% 7% 2% 0%

21% 17% 60% 70%

Difficulty 5%

17% 17% 58% 45% 22% 2%
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In order to have a clearer view of such a change, I draw a figure forest aspect and compare, the results of the two questionnaires.

80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Q2 Q1 Q2 Q1 Q2 Q1 Q2 Q1 Interest Help Difficulty

Figure 1. Comparison of degree of interest Interest: From the graph, we can see clearly that 43% of students like reading after the implementation. The number of the students who is interested in reading increases 20 percent. Help: If I add the percentage of the students choosing 4 and 3 together in Questionnaire Two, I may conclude that 80% of the students think reading is helpful to their English study. From Figure 2 below I find the number of the students who agree that reading is very helpful increase from 17% to 21%. I also notice that there are three students who have negative view on reading. Difficulty: There is a drastic improvement in this term. The result shows that using the new teaching procedure can help the students to overcome their difficulty in reading. Figure 3 below shows the percentage of the students who leave comfortable in reading decrease from 75% to 53%. And 23% more students felt that it is easier to read after the
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implementation. Before the project implementation only 1/4 of the students though they had not much difficulty in reading. After the new teaching procedure employed, about half of the students found reading work is not as difficult as before. Figure 3. Comparison of degree of difficulty 8. Project evaluation In class I try to arouse the students? interest to read the text. I talk with them about the things they care about, the persons they are familiar with. I intentionally set up some tricks about the content of the text. I try to ask the students if they have found something interesting or if they were interested what they have read. This makes the students practice reading skills. They employ skimming, scanning, and inferring to read the text. These help them to have more interest in English reading. More and more students don?t feel scared of reading any more. They feel that it is very interesting. They will be further away from the fear of English reading.They read the text actively and participate in reading the text with more interest. They can get more information and learn more knowledge not only in English, but in many other things. The problem we find in our students? reading is caused by many factors. After analyzing the problem by adopting some scientific methods such as the analytic method, cause analysis, questionnaires and observation, I hypothesize that using new teaching procedure can help the students
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overcome their difficulty and increase their interest in English reading. From the comparison of the result I find the students? interest in reading has risen. Through the above project research, we can conclude that reading is difficult for the students, but we should use proper methods to stimulate their interest and teach them the necessary background knowledge and reading skills, we will have a better result in English language teaching field. We can train the students into efficient readers with enough interest.. Of cause there are still some problems. I shall further analyze the problem using the scientific methods that I have learned from Practical Project Design (Gu Yueguo 1999) and design some new tasks to solve the problem. I will use the knowledge I have learned from the project and other courses in University to keep researching the problems in my English language teaching field in the future. 9. Conclusion In truth, we can get lots of information from the English reading with plenty of interest. Interest plays an important role in English reading for Chinese students. Because reading is for learning and information, which can help extent learners? general knowledge of the world; Reading serves readers immediate needs or wishes; Reading is for entertainment or pleasure. Reading is the ability to understand the written words and respond to them in proper ways. However, what can we do in English
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reading without enough interest? So, teachers and students must know the importance of interest in English reading . For students, on one hand, they should cultivate and build their interest and determination of learning English, have the clear intention to learn, the positive attitude, and improve their English practical ability. On the other hand, students should pay attention to building and developing the interest in reading English, and gradually cultivate good habits of reading English seriously. They have to get right methods of English reading step by step. For teachers, they?d better adopt more useful and new teaching methods to enliven the classroom atmosphere, guide students to maintain the interest. Furthermore, teachers have to pay more attention to improving their own professional abilities and enrich their own knowledge and skills to meet the great changes in educational reforms and opening up to the outside world. In addition, it is very important and necessary for teachers to stimulate the students? interest greatly, and arouse their interest to seek knowledge and skills. They?d better also adopt proper measures to bring out the students' interest in English learning in the long run. In a word, all the teachers and students must spare no effort to work hard in the process of teaching and learning. Through the project, we can see that student?s interest is very helpful to enhance the reading ability of the junior high students. My students? interest in reading has been increased. Students can read the text in their own initiative and can
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understand the meaning of the given text and they own become efficient readers.

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Bibliography 1.《English Language Teaching Methodology 1》 Gu Yueguo 1999

Beijing Foreign Language Teaching and Researching Press 2. 《English Language Teaching Methodology 2》 Gu Yueguo 1999

Beijing Foreign Language Teaching and Researching Press 3. 《Practical Project Design》 Gu Yueguo

Beijing Foreign Language Teaching and Researching Press 4. 《Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching》 London Cambridge University Press 1984 5. 《 Senior English Textbook 1B》 1996 Beijing People?s Education Press 6. 《A New English-Chinese Dictionary 》 1993 Shanghai Translation Press 7. “课程、教材、教法”刘道义 《英语课的任务和教学目的》 1997 年第 3 期 Richards J. C.

8.《 应用心理语言学 》王初明 1990 湖南教育出版社 9. 《试论中学英语教学的文化导入》 年第 3 期 10. 《试论影响外语*得的若干重要因素》 戴炜栋等外语教学理论 系列文章
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葛炳芳湖南师专学报 1998

11. 《How to Simulatc English Learning Interest 》 年 12. “高中英语阅读课文教学模式探讨” 黄远振

Shi Aichang 1996

《Foreign Language Teaching in School》 1998 第 11 期 13. “高中英语阅读策略与教学方法的研究” 杜萍 《Foreign Language Teaching in School》 14.《 外语教育心理学 》 李月娥 版社 15. “初中英语教学中的?呈现?设计” 谢彩云 何伟 2002 年第 4 期 1996 年 南宁, 广西教育出

《中小学英语教学与研究 》 1999 年第 3 期 16. 《现代英语教学》 舒白梅 1996 年

17. “高中英语阅读课教学活动小议” 潘玉兰 马永双 《中小学英语教学与研究》 2001 年第 4 期 1998 年广西教育出版社 罗容

18.《英语阅读论》 胡春洞 戴忠信 19. “ 图式理论和英语阅读理解”

《中小学英语教学与研究 》2001 年第 6 期 20. “浅析英语阅读理解中的语境线索” 《中小学英语教学与研究》 沈建葆

2001 年第 9 期

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Appendix A: Questionnaire One for Problem Analysis

1. 你喜欢阅读吗? ( A 很喜欢 B 比较喜欢

) C 一般 D 不喜欢 ) C 没什么帮助 ) C 不太困难 D 不困难 D 一点没帮助

2. 你认为阅读对你的英语学*( A 有很大帮助 B 有帮助

3 当进行阅读时,我觉得( A 很困难 B 有些困难

4 你认为有必要在课堂上进行阅读吗? A有 B 无所谓 C 无必要 )

5 我在阅读中感到困难的是( A 不认识单词 B 语法不熟

C 没有掌握必要的阅读技巧

D 没有背景知识 )

E 其他

6 你希望在阅读上老师给你什么帮助( A 翻译生单词 B 解释新语法

C 多给一些背景知识 )

7 你认为如何提高自己的阅读能力( A 课前预*,有所准备 C 多作阅读,多看文章 8 我喜欢阅读,因为( )

B 多背单词 D 其他

A 能使我获得很多课外知识 C 能提高我的英语能力

B 能使我得到享受 D 其他
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9 我不喜欢阅读,因为( A 太浪费时间

) C 没兴趣 D 其他

B 生词太多,读不懂

Appendix B: Worksheet----------note

Read the passage in Lesson 82 and 83 again Write notes in the space below: Born: _________________________________________________ Students: Lived in: _______________________________________ Moved to London in: Wrote (books): ________________________ Wrote articles about: _____________________________________ Studied (language): _______________________________________ Political idea: ____________________________________________

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Appendix C: 1. flood 2. in danger 3. protect a. Make b. A wall built to keep back water c. To save from water
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4. dam 5. rescue 6. (sth) date from

d. To be covered with water e. In great troubles f.(sth) be built

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Appendix D: Worksheet--------Filling in the blanks

Karl Marx was born in____. When he was young, he____ to leave his homeland for____ reason. He had to from one country to another. At last he came to England and____ London the base for his revolutionary work. Marx____ some English before he came to London, but he ____ his English was limited. He working hard to improve it. He made ____ rapid progress before long he could write articles in English. Engles wrote him a letter to _____ him for it. Engles? letter had greatly _____ him,and from then on, Marx _____ even harder at his English. He mastered English _____well______ he could wrote one of his freast works The Civil War in France in English. When Marx was in his fifties, he ______to learn Russian, because he thought it was important to study the situation in Russia. At the ______ of six months, he had learned ____to read articles and reports in Russian. Marx set us a good examples in learning foreign languages.

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Appendix E: Questionnaire Two---the Post-trial Questionnaire 1. 经过这一段时间的阅读训练,你喜欢阅读吗?( A 很喜欢 B 比较喜欢 C 一般 D 还是不喜欢 ) C 没什么帮助 ) C 不象以前那样困难了
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2. 你认为阅读对你的英语学*( A 有很大帮助 B 有帮助

D 一点没帮助

3.当你在阅读时,你觉得 ( A 比以前更困难 B 没有变化

D

不困难 4. 你认为自己的阅读能力( A 提高很多 B 提高一点 ) C 没有什么提高 ) D 没有帮助 ) D 一点没提高

5. 你认为阅读对提高英语能力( A 帮助很大 B 有帮助

C 帮助不大

6. 阅读课文时,你觉得背景知识对阅读理解( A 影响很大 B 有影响 C 影响不大

D 没影响 )

7. 你认为阅读技巧对阅读理解的效果和速度影响( A 很大 B 一般 C 不大 ) D 没影响

8. 阅读后,你喜欢( A 作多项选择题

B 做补全单词题

C 做判断正误题

D

与人用英语讨论内容

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Appendix F How Marx Learning Foreign Language Karl Marx was born in Germany, and German war his native language. When he was still a young man, he was forced to leave his homeland for political reasons. He stayed in Belgium for a few years; then he went to France. Before long he had to move on again. In 1849, he went to England and made London the base for his revolutionary work. Marx had learned some French and English at school. When he got to England, he found that his English is too limited. He stared working hard to improve it. He made such rapid progress that before long he began to write articles in English for an American newspaper. In fact, his English in one of these articles was so good that Engels wrote him a letter and praised him for it. Marx wrote back to say that Engels, praised had greatly encouraged him. However he went on explaining that he was not to sure about two things—the grammar and some of the idioms. These letters were written in 1853. In the years that followed, Marx kept on studying English and using it. When he wrote one of his greatest works, The Civil War in France, he had mastered the language so well that he was able to write the books in English. In the 1870?s, when Marx was already in his fifties, he found it important to study situation in Russia, so he began to learn Russian. At
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the end of six months he had learned enough to read articles and reports in Russian. In one of the books, Marx gave some advice on how to learn a foreign language. He said when a person is learning a foreign language, he must not always be translating everything into his own language. If he does this, it shows that he has not mastered it. He must be able to use the foreign language, forgetting all about his own. If he can not do this, he was not really grasped the spirit of the foreign language and can not use it freely.

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